I have the exact issue, running version 126.96.36.1998 nightly (CL-1.7.150) on macOS. I can replicate on-demand - when Adguard is running, OneDrive is stuck updating files for days (which I've been wasting hours trying to figure out). Turning off Adguard starts sync immediately. I'd agree with the previous poster, Adguard is unusable for me until this resolved.
Same issue here, but Onedrive was not on the list. tried adding it manual and checking with it checked and unchecked but still not able to sync.
Notably with earlier builds i found Microsoft Outlook was also unable to sync, Switching from Network extension to Automatic Proxy was the only way around it. (but this has had issues with some other apps for me) On the later builds outlook is working fine but issue persists with Onedrive.
Can confirm this is an issue for me as well. OneDrive doesn't work with the latest nightly build (188.8.131.528 CL-1.7.150) - adding it to a filtered network list and leaving it unchecked also does not work.
Similarly to @louisd, switching network filtering to automatic proxy does work. Will do that as a temporary measure.